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How are diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus different?

Diabetes mellitus occurs due to insulin resistance or insulin deficiency and subsequent high blood glucose levels. Diabetes Insipidus on the other hand develops as a result of the stilted production of a hormone in the brain, which is released to stop the kidneys producing so much urine in order to retain water.

Also, why is diabetes insipidus called diabetes?

The word ‘diabetes‘ is derived from the Greek word that means ‘syphon’ or ‘go through’, referring to the production of lots of urine, that occurs in both diabetes mellitus and insipidus, when uncontrolled. Without vasopressin, the kidney cannot concentrate urine and so lots of dilute urine is passed.

Also Know, what causes polyuria and polydipsia in diabetes mellitus? Polyuria is usually the result of drinking excessive amounts of fluids (polydipsia), particularly water and fluids that contain caffeine or alcohol. It is also one of the major signs of diabetes mellitus. When the kidneys filter blood to make urine, they reabsorb all of the sugar, returning it to the bloodstream.

Subsequently, one may also ask, which hormones are responsible for diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus?

Causes. Both types of diabetes insipidus are linked to a hormone called vasopressin but occur in different ways. Vasopressin promotes water retention in the kidneys.

Why thiazides are given in diabetes insipidus?

A thiazide diuretic, such as chlorthalidone or hydrochlorothiazide, can be used to create mild hypovolemia which encourages salt and water uptake in proximal tubule and thus improve nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Thiazide diuretics are sometimes combined with amiloride to prevent hypokalemia caused by the thiazides.

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